Child maltreatment is a global problem with serious life-1ong consequences.There are no reliable global estimates for the prevalence of child maltreatment.Data for many countries。especially low-and middle-income countries, are lacking.
Child maltreatment is complex and difficult to study.Current estimates vary widely depending on the country and the method of research used.Nonetheless，international studies reveal that approximately 20%of women and 5-10%of men report being sexually abused as children.While 25―50%of all children report being physically abused.Additionally，many children are subject to 1 emotional abuse(sometimes referred to as2 psychological abuse).
Every year，there are an estimated 31.000 homicide deaths in children under 15.This number underestimates the true extent of the problem, as a significant proportion of deaths due to child maltreatment are incorrectly attributed to 3 falls, burns and drowning.
Child maltreatment causes suffering to children and families and can have long-term consequences.Maltreatment causes stress that is associated with disrupt南京癫痫病手术治疗ion in early brain development.Extreme stress can impair the development of the nervous and immune systems.Consequently，as adults，maltreated children are at increased risk for behavioural , physical and mental health problems.Via.the behavioural and mental health consequences, maltreatment can contribute to heart disease，cancer，suicide and sexually transmitted infections.4
Beyond the health consequences of child maltreatment.there is an economic impact, including cost of hospitalization, mental health treatment, child welfare, and longer-term health cost.
A number of risk factor for child maltreatment have been identified. These risk factors are not present in all social and cultural contexts, but provide an overview when attempting to understand the causes of child maltreatment.
It is important to emphasize that children are the victims and are never to blame for5 maltreatment. A number of characteristics of an individual child may increase the likelihood of being maltreated, such as being either under four years old or an adolescent, being unwanted, or failing to fulfill the expectations of parents and having special nee河南郑州市惠济区军海医院性质d, crying persistently or having abnormal physical features.6
1.be subject to：遭受……
2.be referred to as：被当做……
3.be attributed t0：把……归因于……
4.Consequently，as adults，maltreated children are at increased risk for behavioural，physical and mental health problems.Via the behavioural and mental health consequence s，maltreatment can contribute to heart disease，cancer，suicide and sexually transmitted infections.因此，那些曾被虐待的儿童，到了成人期，在行为、生理以及心理等方面出现疾病的危险性大大增加。通过行为和心理上对健康的影响，虐待又会导致其出现心脏病、癌症、自杀以及性传播疾病等。
5.to blame for：因……怪罪，责怪(某人)
6.A number of characteristics of an individual child may increase the likelihood of being maltreated，such as being either under four years old or an adolescent，being unwanted，or faili湖北癫痫病医院到哪家治疗好ng to fulfil the expectations of parents and having special needs，crying persistently or having abnormal physical features.
1.The difficult situation in the global estimates of the child maltreatment is due to the following factors EXCEPT ____according to the passage.
A child maltreatment is a global problem
B there is no exact data about low-and mid-income countries
C there is a shortage of the professional data collectors
D different scientists use different research methods
2.Which of the following statements is ture according to the passage?
A 20% of women got sexually abused in their childhood.
B 25―50%of all children were reported to have been physically abused.
C 25_50%of children were psychologically abused.
D 60―75%of children were neglected by their parents.
3.Many homicide deaths in children under 15 are wrongly categorized into the following types EXCEPT_______ according to the passage.
A drowning in swimming
4.Which of the 治疗癫痫病比较佳的方法following is NOT mentioned as the bad impact caused by child maltreatment?
A The child will behave badly in his memory of his childhood when he grows up.
B Child maltreatment hurts his nervous and immune systems.
C Child maltreatment damages his early brain development.
D The child is easily affected by many diseases in his adulthood.
5.The maltreated children often bear all the following characteristics EXCEPT______to the passage.
A they frequently and easily cry
B they are in infant’s or in adolescent period
C they are often neglected by their parents or friends
D they often try their best to meet the requirements from their parents