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2017职称英语卫生类B阅读精选练习1_职称英语考试

时间:2018-06-01 来源:式负版者网
 

  Child maltreatment is a global problem with serious life-1ong consequences.There are no reliable global estimates for the prevalence of child maltreatment.Data for many countries。especially low-and middle-income countries, are lacking.

  Child maltreatment is complex and difficult to study.Current estimates vary widely depending on the country and the method of research used.Nonetheless,international studies reveal that approximately 20%of women and 5-10%of men report being sexually abused as children.While 25―50%of all children report being physically abused.Additionally,many children are subject to 1 emotional abuse(sometimes referred to as2 psychological abuse).

  Every year,there are an estimated 31.000 homicide deaths in children under 15.This number underestimates the true extent of the problem, as a significant proportion of deaths due to child maltreatment are incorrectly attributed to 3 falls, burns and drowning.

  Child maltreatment causes suffering to children and families and can have long-term consequences.Maltreatment causes stress that is associated with disrupt南京癫痫病手术治疗ion in early brain development.Extreme stress can impair the development of the nervous and immune systems.Consequently,as adults,maltreated children are at increased risk for behavioural , physical and mental health problems.Via.the behavioural and mental health consequences, maltreatment can contribute to heart disease,cancer,suicide and sexually transmitted infections.4

  Beyond the health consequences of child maltreatment.there is an economic impact, including cost of hospitalization, mental health treatment, child welfare, and longer-term health cost.

  A number of risk factor for child maltreatment have been identified. These risk factors are not present in all social and cultural contexts, but provide an overview when attempting to understand the causes of child maltreatment.

  It is important to emphasize that children are the victims and are never to blame for5 maltreatment. A number of characteristics of an individual child may increase the likelihood of being maltreated, such as being either under four years old or an adolescent, being unwanted, or failing to fulfill the expectations of parents and having special nee河南郑州市惠济区军海医院性质d, crying persistently or having abnormal physical features.6

  词汇:

  Maltreatment 虐待

  impair 损害

  consequence结局,结果

  prevalence流行

  approximately大约,大概

  abuse滥用;虐待

  homicide杀人

  attribute归因于

  disruption扰乱

  via 通过

  transmit 传染,传播

  likelihood可能性

  adolescent 青春之男孩或女孩儿

  persistently 坚持地,持续地

  注释:

  1.be subject to:遭受……

  2.be referred to as:被当做……

  3.be attributed t0:把……归因于……

  4.Consequently,as adults,maltreated children are at increased risk for behavioural,physical and mental health problems.Via the behavioural and mental health consequence s,maltreatment can contribute to heart disease,cancer,suicide and sexually transmitted infections.因此,那些曾被虐待的儿童,到了成人期,在行为、生理以及心理等方面出现疾病的危险性大大增加。通过行为和心理上对健康的影响,虐待又会导致其出现心脏病、癌症、自杀以及性传播疾病等。

  5.to blame for:因……怪罪,责怪(某人)

  6.A number of characteristics of an individual child may increase the likelihood of being maltreated,such as being either under four years old or an adolescent,being unwanted,or faili湖北癫痫病医院到哪家治疗好ng to fulfil the expectations of parents and having special needs,crying persistently or having abnormal physical features.

  练习:

  1.The difficult situation in the global estimates of the child maltreatment is due to the following factors EXCEPT ____according to the passage.

  A child maltreatment is a global problem

  B there is no exact data about low-and mid-income countries

  C there is a shortage of the professional data collectors

  D different scientists use different research methods
 2.Which of the following statements is ture according to the passage?

  A 20% of women got sexually abused in their childhood.

  B 25―50%of all children were reported to have been physically abused.

  C 25_50%of children were psychologically abused.

  D 60―75%of children were neglected by their parents.

  3.Many homicide deaths in children under 15 are wrongly categorized into the following types EXCEPT_______ according to the passage.

  A drowning in swimming

  B diarrhea

  C bums

  D falls

  4.Which of the 治疗癫痫病比较佳的方法following is NOT mentioned as the bad impact caused by child maltreatment?

  A The child will behave badly in his memory of his childhood when he grows up.

  B Child maltreatment hurts his nervous and immune systems.

  C Child maltreatment damages his early brain development.

  D The child is easily affected by many diseases in his adulthood.

  5.The maltreated children often bear all the following characteristics EXCEPT______to the passage.

  A they frequently and easily cry

  B they are in infant’s or in adolescent period

  C they are often neglected by their parents or friends

  D they often try their best to meet the requirements from their parents

  答案与题解:

  1.C 文中第一段提到了虐待儿童是--全球问题,无法获得中低收入国家中儿童受虐数字资料,第二段开头提到了儿童受虐数字难以统计的另外一个原因,即研究方法的差异性,只有

  专业统计人员是否缺乏没有提及,因此答案为C。

  2.B文中第二段对数字有明确说明。

  3.B 文中第三段指出每年l5岁以下儿童死亡大概在31,000人,该数字大大低估了实际情况,是因为有相当多的由于受虐而导致死亡的儿童被归因为摔死、烧死、淹死。没有明确指出腹泻,因此可推断出该题答案为B。

  4.A文中提到虐待儿童会导致其出现身体上的疾病,包括神经系统,免疫系统,大脑发育,以及成年后出现的疾病,但那没有提到是否会对其记忆力产生影响,因此,答案为A。

  5.D参见注释

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